is estimated that 40% of schools in the United
States have eliminated one or more period of
recess in their school day in favor of more
In this study, a class of 24 underperforming first graders in a socio-economically
disadvantaged school were given opportunities to have recess, and their growth
in literacy was examined through observation and analysis of class discussions.
Play opportunities contributed to the literacy growth of students who, because
of circumstances such as family crisis, holdover status, or poverty, might
otherwise not have experienced as much academic
success. This study makes an argument that
recess is a valuable component of education, especially in urban public schools.